Trending with Impact: Epigenetic Age Decreased in Diet & Lifestyle Study

Researchers conducted an eight-week study on diet and lifestyle among a small cohort of 43 male participants between the ages of 50 and 72.

Happy senior couple buying fresh food at the market

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In addition to the well-known personal and social costs of aging, the economic costs of aging are also considerably high. Research finds that investing in delaying aging is much more cost-effective than disease-specific spending. A study found that if Americans as a whole delayed their aging by 2.2 years (while extending healthspan), economic savings over 50 years could amount to a cumulative $7 trillion.

“The growing health-related economic and social challenges of our rapidly aging population are well recognized and affect individuals, their families, health systems and economies.”

Across three countries (the United States, Canada, and Israel), researchers from the Institute for Functional Medicine, American Nutrition Association, National University of Natural Medicine, Ariel University, McGill University, and the University of California, conducted a new pilot study on the effects that diet and lifestyle intervention have on aging among healthy males between the ages of 50 and 72. This research paper was published in Aging’s Volume 13, Issue 7, and entitled, “Potential reversal of epigenetic age using a diet and lifestyle intervention: a pilot randomized clinical trial.”

The Study

The researchers organized a cohort of 43 healthy adult males between the ages of 50 and 72. Half of the participants (n=21) completed an eight-week treatment program, and the other half (control group=22) received no intervention. Interventions within the treatment program included regimented diet, sleep, exercise, relaxation guidance, and supplemental probiotics and phytonutrients. Prior to the treatment program, participants were enrolled in a preliminary education week to become acquainted with the researchers’ prescribed dietary and lifestyle interventions.

“To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled study to suggest that specific diet and lifestyle interventions may reverse Horvath DNAmAge (2013) epigenetic aging in healthy adult males.”

Diet Prescription

Researchers prescribed the participants with mostly (not entirely) plant-based diet instructions to consume measured portions of liver, eggs, dark leafy greens, cruciferous vegetables, colorful vegetables (excluding white potatoes and sweetcorn), beets, pumpkin seeds (or pumpkin seed butter), sunflower seeds (or sunflower seed butter), methylation adaptogens, berries, rosemary, turmeric, garlic, green tea, oolong tea, animal protein, and low glycemic fruit. They were prescribed two daily doses of PhytoGanix®, which is a combination of organic vegetables, fruits, seeds, herbs, plant enzymes, prebiotics, and probiotics. A daily two-capsule dose of UltraFlora® Intensive Care, containing Lactobacillus plantarum, was also prescribed.

General guidance included that participants should choose organic food products over conventional, and to consume “healthy” oils and balanced types of fat, including coconut, olive, flaxseed, and pumpkin seed oil. Participants were told to avoid consuming added sugar, candy, dairy, grains, legumes/beans, and to minimize using plastic food containers. In addition, the prescription instructed participants to stay hydrated and not to eat between 7pm and 7am.

Lifestyle Prescription

The participant exercise prescription was a minimum of 30 minutes per day for at least five days per week, at 60-80% intensity. They completed two 20 minute breathing exercises daily, using the Steps to Elicit the Relaxation Response process developed by Herbert Benson, MD. Participants were prescribed to sleep a minimum of seven hours per night.

Measuring Epigenetic Age 

“Currently, the best biochemical markers of an individual’s age are all based on patterns of methylation [5].”

To extract DNA from the participants, researchers collected saliva samples and evaluated their RNA and DNA. They used methylation kits, assays, and the Horvath DNAmAge clock to conduct genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and calculate epigenetic age (DNAmAge) at the beginning of the study, and at the end.

“Horvath’s DNAmAge clock predicts all-cause mortality and multiple morbidities better than chronological age. Methylation clocks (including DNAmAge) are based on systematic methylation changes with age.”

Conclusion

According to the Horvath DNAmAge clock, participants in the treatment group scored an average 3.23 years younger at the end of the eight-week program when compared to participants in the control group. While these findings are meaningful, additional studies with a larger cohort size, longer duration, and other human populations will be needed in order to confirm these results.

“Notably, the shorter timeframe of this study and the scale of potential reduction, while modest in magnitude, may correlate with meaningful socioeconomic benefits, and appears to have the potential to be broadly achievable.”

Click here to read the full study, published on Aging-US.com.

Aging is an open-access journal that publishes research papers monthly in all fields of aging research and other topics. These papers are available to read at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals offer information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out and may be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

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