Rapamycin’s Therapeutic Potential in Treating Werner Syndrome

In this new study, researchers from Japan investigated the molecular mechanisms of subcutaneous fat dysfunction in Werner syndrome.

Between 1904 and 2008, researchers found that approximately 75% of patients with Werner syndrome (WS) worldwide were of Japanese descent. WS is a rare genetic disorder that causes premature aging and increases the risk of various age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. One of the hallmarks of WS is the loss of subcutaneous fat, which is the layer of fat under the skin that helps regulate body temperature and store energy. Subcutaneous fat loss leads to severe insulin resistance, which means that the body cannot use glucose effectively and has high blood sugar levels. But what causes subcutaneous fat loss in WS? And how does it affect the metabolism and health of WS patients? 

In a new study, researchers Daisuke Sawada, Hisaya Kato, Hiyori Kaneko, Daisuke Kinoshita, Shinichiro Funayama, Takuya Minamizuka, Atsushi Takasaki, Katsushi Igarashi, Masaya Koshizaka, Aki Takada-Watanabe, Rito Nakamura, Kazuto Aono, Ayano Yamaguchi, Naoya Teramoto, Yukari Maeda, Tomohiro Ohno, Aiko Hayashi, Kana Ide, Shintaro Ide, Mayumi Shoji, Takumi Kitamoto, Yusuke Endo, Hideyuki Ogata, Yoshitaka Kubota, Nobuyuki Mitsukawa, Atsushi Iwama, Yasuo Ouchi, Naoya Takayama, Koji Eto, Katsunori Fujii, Tomozumi Takatani, Tadashi Shiohama, Hiromichi Hamada, Yoshiro Maezawa, and Koutaro Yokote from Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, and International University of Welfare and Health School of Medicine aimed to shed light on these questions by investigating the molecular mechanisms of subcutaneous fat dysfunction in WS. On October 3, 2023, their research paper was published in Aging’s Volume 15, Issue 19, entitled, “Senescence-associated inflammation and inhibition of adipogenesis in subcutaneous fat in Werner syndrome.”

“[…] research on WS is important as it can provide insights into the pathogenesis and development of treatments not only for WS but also for general age-related diseases [5].”

The Study

The researchers analyzed subcutaneous fat samples from four Japanese patients with WS and compared them with samples from healthy individuals. They found that WS subcutaneous fat cells showed signs of cellular senescence, which is a state of irreversible growth arrest that occurs when cells are exposed to stress or damage. Senescent cells secrete inflammatory molecules that can harm neighboring cells and tissues, known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP.

The study also revealed that WS subcutaneous fat cells had impaired adipogenesis, which is the ability to differentiate into mature fat cells that can store lipids and secrete hormones. This was associated with reduced expression of genes involved in insulin signaling and lipid metabolism, such as IRS1, PI3K, AKT, and SREBP1. Moreover, the researchers found that rapamycin, a drug that inhibits a protein called mTOR that regulates cell growth and metabolism, could partially restore insulin signaling and adipogenesis in WS subcutaneous fat cells.

“These results suggest that rapamycin rescues cellular senescence and insulin resistance in WSVF [WS subcutaneous adipose tissues], and extends the lifespan of the WS model in vivo.”

Their findings suggest that senescence-associated inflammation and inhibition of adipogenesis play a role in subcutaneous fat reduction and dysfunction in WS, which may contribute to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. This study also provides evidence that targeting mTOR with rapamycin or other drugs may have therapeutic potential for improving subcutaneous fat function and metabolic health in WS patients.


This study is one of the first to explore the molecular mechanisms of subcutaneous fat dysfunction in WS using human samples. It adds to the growing body of research on the role of senescence and inflammation in aging and age-related diseases. It also highlights the importance of subcutaneous fat as a key metabolic organ that affects not only body shape but also systemic health.

“Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), alleviated premature cellular senescence, rescued the decrease in insulin signaling, and extended the lifespan of WS model of C. elegans. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the critical role of cellular senescence in subcutaneous lipoatrophy and severe insulin resistance in WS, highlighting the therapeutic potential of rapamycin for this disease.”

Click here to read the full study published in Aging.

Aging is an open-access, traditional, peer-reviewed journal that has published high-impact papers in all fields of aging research since 2009. All papers are available to readers (at no cost and free of subscription barriers) in bi-monthly issues at Aging-US.com.

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Dr. Mikhail Blagosklonny on Rapamycin Longevity Series

The world’s leading Rapamycin researcher, Dr. Mikhail Blagosklonny, has a long background in cancer research and one important discovery he made around 2000 was that Rapamycin slowed down senescent cancer cells in different ways. After that step-by-step, his interest in the longevity field increased and he developed the very interesting hyperfunction theory of aging.

He has made a huge contribution in moving the Rapamycin longevity field forward and his research papers have impacted many people. For example, the Rapamycin physician Alan Green who – thanks to these papers – took the decision in 2017 to start prescribing Rapamycin off label. Today, Alan Green has the biggest clinical experience in the area with more than 1,200 patients. A lot of other physicians have after that also taken these steps and one of those, for example, is physician Peter Attia.

Interview Table of Contents:

  • 02:32 Current situation and mission
  • 04:07 Why did Rapamycin not prevent his cancer?
  • 06:33 He develops a new type of cancer treatment
  • 08:32 Hyperfunction theory of age-related diseases
  • 10:38 mTOR drives age-related diseases
  • 13:00 Hyperfunction theory and the car analogy
  • 17:20 Difference between new and old version of hyperfunction theory
  • 19:58 Prediction based on hyperfunction theory
  • 21:38 Rapamycin seems to work at any age
  • 23:55 Rapamycin will not make you immortal
  • 26:21 Rapamycin delays lung cancer in mice
  • 27:44 Hyperfunction theory and hormesis
  • 29:13 Rapamycin combination with fasting or calorie restriction
  • 30:33 Rapamycin combination with Acarbose or low carb diet
  • 31:40 Rapamycin combination with exercise
  • 33:04 Exercise and longevity effect
  • 36:10 mTOR sweet spot
  • 38:44 Why do centenarians live a long life?
  • 40:36 Theory of accumulation of molecular damage
  • 44:04 Hyperfunction theory was initially rejected
  • 47:47 Rapamycin research that is missing
  • 51:44 Rapamycin and bacterial infection
  • 53:30 Rapamycin side effect on longevity dose regime
  • 55:50 Rapamycin and pseudo-diabetes
  • 58:51 Rapamycin combination of Acarbose or low carb diet
  • 1:00:09 Rapamycin and increase in lipids
  • 1:02:19 mTOR, mTORC1 and mTORC2
  • 1:05:22 Mikhail’s self-experimentation with Rapamycin
  • 1:10:41 Rapamycin and traditional medical care
  • 1:11:13 Rapamycin and unacceptable side effects
  • 1:14:26 Rapamycin and combinations to avoid
  • 1:16:55 Rapamycin and high protein intake
  • 1:18:08 Best time to start taking Rapamycin
  • 1:21:00 Does Rapamycin prevent cancer or not?
  • 1:23:52 Autophagy is a double-edged sword
  • 1:26:51 Important insight from his cancer
  • 1:28:38 Rapamycin rebound effect
  • 1:30:24 Difference between theory and practice
  • 1:32:45 Mikhail’s cancer and cancer treatment
  • 1:37:36 Rapamycin and danger

Dr. Blagosklonny’s Links:

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The podcast is for general information and educational purposes only and is not medical advice for you or others. The use of information and materials linked to the podcast is at the users own risk. Always consult your physician with anything you do regarding your health or medical condition.

Late-in-Life Interventions to Improve Cardiac Health

In a new research perspective, researchers discuss spermidine, rapamycin, caloric restriction, and exercise training to improve cardiac health in aging individuals.

Figure 1. Late-in-life exercise training boosts autophagic flux to an extent that rejuvenates cardiac function.
Figure 1. Late-in-life exercise training boosts autophagic flux to an extent that rejuvenates cardiac function.
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Cardiac dysfunction is a major public health concern. While it can occur for various reasons at any age, the prevalence of cardiac dysfunction dramatically increases with advancing age. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms of age-related cardiac decline are still largely unknown. Thus, it is essential for researchers to uncover novel strategies to improve cardiac health at advanced ages.

Autophagic Flux

An important physiological process involved in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis is autophagic flux. Autophagic flux is the process by which cells break down and recycle their own cellular components after they have become damaged or unnecessary. This process is essential for maintaining healthy cardiac function, as it slows age-related oxidative damage, reduces the accumulation of toxic lipid and protein aggregates, and improves energy metabolism. However, the efficiency of autophagic flux decreases with age, resulting in declined cardiac function.

Given its crucial role and fading functioning, the search for strategies to improve autophagic flux may be essential for improving cardiovascular health as humans age. Researchers Jae Min Cho, Rajeshwary Ghosh, Sohom Mookherjee, Sihem Boudina, and J. David Symons from the University of Utah authored a new research perspective about nutraceutical, lifestyle and pharmacological interventions that can reduce age-associated cardiac dysfunction. On December 1, 2022, their research perspective was published in Aging’s Volume 14, Issue 23, entitled, “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Run ! : 4 Rs to improve cardiac health in advanced age.”

“In the following sections we review evidence that age-associated cardiac dysfunction can be Reduced by boosting cardiomyocyte autophagy (i.e., the ability to Reuse and Recycle damaged/dysfunctional proteins) via spermidine, rapamycin, and caloric-restriction. In addition, we highlight a new report indicating that a physiological intervention i.e., Running, rejuvenates cardiomyocyte autophagic flux to an extent that lessens age-associated cardiac dysfunction.”

Late-in-Life Interventions

Late-in-life interventions to improve cardiac health are particularly important since many of the world’s elderly populations are reaching advanced age with limited resources. This means that proven, inexpensive and accessible interventions to reduce cardiac dysfunction may have a profound impact on these populations. In this research perspective, the authors discuss four key interventions that reduce age-associated cardiac dysfunction: spermidine, rapamycin, caloric restriction, and exercise training. These interventions can reduce age-associated cardiac dysfunction by improving cardiac autophagy.

In October 2021, Cho et al. published a novel research paper about their study on late-in-life treadmill training in mice and its impact on autophagy, protein aggregates and heart function. The results of this study provided the first evidence that late-in-life exercise training can rejuvenate autophagic flux, clear protein aggregates and attenuate aging-associated cardiac dysfunction. In another murine study, researchers demonstrated that calorie restriction activates AMPK and increases the expression of autophagy-associated genes in the heart muscles.

Spermidine is a polyamine found in certain foods, such as legumes and nuts. A 2016 study linked spermidine to reduced age-associated cardiac dysfunction by attenuating cardiac hypertrophy and preserving diastolic function. Rapamycin is an mTOR inhibitor, immunosuppressant and anti-cancer drug. In a 2013 study, Flynn et al. were the first to report the cardiovascular effects of rapamycin in the context of aging. Rapamycin’s cardiovascular benefits include repressed pro-inflammatory signaling in heart muscles, reduced hypertrophy and preserved systolic function.


As the world’s population continues to age, it is increasingly important to identify interventions that can reduce age-associated cardiac dysfunction while avoiding high costs and potential side effects. In this research perspective, the researchers discussed evidence that spermidine, rapamycin, calorie restriction, and exercise training can improve autophagic flux and reduce age-associated cardiac dysfunction. While the mechanisms responsible for these improvements have yet to be fully elucidated, these strategies are cost-effective, accessible and relatively safe for elderly populations, and could provide a valuable way to improve cardiac health in advanced age.

“Findings from Cho et al. suggest that age-associated cardiac dysfunction can be re-established by Reducing (physical inactivity), Reusing (lysosomal degradation products e.g., amino acids for ATP synthesis), Recycling (damaged intracellular organelles via the lysosome and other protein degradation pathways), and Running (or increasing physical activity via any mode that can be enjoyed regularly and safely by the individual) (Figure 1).”

Click here to read the full research perspective published by Aging.

Aging is an open-access journal that publishes research papers bi-monthly in all fields of aging research. These papers are available at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals have the power to benefit humanity from the inside out by rapidly disseminating information that may be freely shared with researchers, colleagues, family, and friends around the world.

For media inquiries, please contact media@impactjournals.com.

Aging-US: Hallmarks of Cancer and Hallmarks of Aging

“Hyperfunctional signaling directly drives age-related diseases.”

— Mikhail Blagosklonny, M.D., Ph.D.

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BUFFALO, NY- May 18, 2022 – Dr. Mikhail Blagosklonny published his new review paper in Aging (Aging-US) Volume 14, Issue 9, entitled, “Hallmarks of cancer and hallmarks of aging.”

In this review, Dr. Blagosklonny expands on Gems and de Magalhães’ notion that canonic hallmarks of aging are superficial imitations of the hallmarks of cancer. He takes their work a step further and proposes the hallmarks of cancer and aging based on a hierarchical principle and the hyperfunction theory.

“Here I present the hallmarks of cancer, depicted as a circle by Hanahan and Weinberg [1], not as the circle but hierarchically, from molecular levels to the organism (Figure 1).”

Figure 1. Hierarchical representation (from molecular to organismal levels) of the original hallmarks of cancer based on Hanahan and Weinberg. See text for explanation.

Next, Dr. Blagosklonny depicts the hallmarks of aging suggested by López-Otín et al. based on the hierarchical principle. 

“This representation renders hallmarks tangible but reveals three shortcomings (Figure 2).”

Figure 2. Hierarchical representation of the hallmarks of aging based on López-Otín et al. See text for explanation.

The first shortcoming that Dr. Blagosklonny notes is the lack of hallmarks on the organismal level. The second is that the relationship between hallmarks on different levels is unclear. The third is that the inclusion of genetic instability as a hallmark is based on the theory that aging is caused by the accumulation of molecular damage. 

“The molecular damage theory was refuted by key experiments, as discussed in detail [44–51].” 

Dr. Blagosklonny then uses the hyperfunction theory to arrange the hierarchical hallmarks of aging.

“Let us depict hallmarks of aging, according to the hyperfunction theory of aging (Figure 3).”

Figure 3. Hierarchical hallmarks of aging based on hyperfunction theory, applicable to humans. Non-life-limiting hallmarks are shown in brown color. See text for explanation.

Dr. Blagosklonny continues by discussing the key to understanding aging and aging as a selective force for cancer. He concludes this review by discussing the common hallmarks of cancer, aging and cell senescence.

“In organismal aging, cancer and cellular senescence, the same key signaling pathways, such as mTOR, are involved. This is why the same drugs, such as rapamycin, can suppress all of them.”

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.204082 

Correspondence to: Mikhail V. Blagosklonny 

Email: Blagosklonny@oncotarget.comBlagosklonny@rapalogs.com 

Keywords: oncology, carcinogenesis, geroscience, mTOR, rapamycin, hyperfunction theory

Follow Dr. Blagosklonny on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Blagosklonny

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Dr. Blagosklonny’s Rapamycin-Based Recommendation for Altos Labs

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After the January 2022 launch of Altos Labs, a new anti-aging biotechnology company, Mikhail (Misha) Blagosklonny, M.D., Ph.D., joined this exciting public conversation with a recommendation. Dr. Blagosklonny is a prominent scientist in the fields of cancer and aging research. He is well-known for his experimental research articles and theoretical papers on the hyperfunction theory of aging and the pursuit of longevity with rapamycin. On April 22, 2022, his latest research perspective was published in Oncoscience, and entitled, “Altos Labs and the quest for immortality: but can we live longer right now?” 

“Here I discuss how combining rapamycin with other modalities may let us live long enough to benefit from future discoveries in cellular reprogramming and what needs to be done at Altos Labs to make this happen.” (Source: Blagosklonny, 2022)

Altos Labs

Funded by multiple billionaire investors, including Jeff Bezos and Yuri Milner, Altos Labs has announced that their primary focus is on reprogramming cells in the pursuit of reversing the trajectory of many diseases, and thus, reversing aging.

“Altos Labs is a new biotechnology company focused on cellular rejuvenation programming to restore cell health and resilience, with the goal of reversing disease to transform medicine.” (Source: AltosLabs.com)

Altos Labs researchers are aiming to turn back the human aging process by resetting epigenetic clocks within our cells. Cellular rejuvenation programming is a process by which the aging of cells may be reversed, potentially leading to the prevention or reversal of age-related diseases, such as cancer. In animal studies, cellular rejuvenation programming has been shown to lead to improved healthspan and increased lifespan. Researchers at Altos Labs intend to investigate its effects in humans with further research. The process will potentially involve the use of the Yamanaka factors, specialized proteins known as sirtuins and artificial intelligence or machine learning. Implications of successfully developing this technology would be vast, and it could one day lead to a significant extension of the human lifespan.

Dr. Blagosklonny’s Recommendation

Following the public unveiling of this new and highly-funded quest to reverse aging through cellular reprogramming, Dr. Blagosklonny openly chimed in with a perceptive recommendation in his latest research perspective. Given that potential revelations learned from studies at Altos Labs may take years to be brought safely to public markets, Dr. Blagosklonny suggests that research at Altos Labs should also include a deep investigation into rapamycin, a clinically approved mTOR inhibitor. Rapamycin is a promising anti-aging agent that was first clinically approved as an immunosuppressive drug to prevent organ rejection after a kidney transplant. 

“Rapamycin treatment is rapidly becoming a mainstream anti-aging intervention.” (Source: Blagosklonny, 2022)

Dr. Blagosklonny writes that potential life-extension with rapamycin may allow us to slow aging while we await future discoveries that may reverse aging altogether. However, he also writes that treatment with rapamycin alone is unlikely to extend lifespan sufficiently enough to benefit from Altos Labs’ future discoveries within our lifetime. Dr. Blagosklonny urges that discovering efficacious combinations of rapamycin with other therapeutic agents may enable humans today to live long enough to benefit from Altos Labs’ future discoveries in cellular reprogramming.

“If Altos Labs would allocate a small percentage of its funding to develop rapamycin based drug combinations, then additional decades of life extension may be available 3–5 years from now.”

“The number of potential combinations with rapamycin is enormous.” (Source: Blagosklonny, 2022)

Click here to read Dr. Blagosklonny’s full research perspective, published in Oncoscience.

Press release: Altos Labs and the Quest for Immortality: Dr. Blagosklonny’s Perspective.

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Aging (Aging-US) is an open-access journal that publishes research papers bi-monthly in all fields of aging research. These papers are available at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals have the power to benefit humanity from the inside out by rapidly disseminating information that may be freely shared with researchers, colleagues, family, and friends around the world.

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TP53 Restoration Sensitizes Pancreatic Cancer to Multiple Drugs

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Patients over the age of 50 years old who have been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have a poorer rate of survival compared to younger patients. This means that pancreatic cancer is a disease associated with aging. The most common type of pancreatic cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and it is frequently diagnosed in its later stages. PDAC is often refractive to chemotherapies and develops resistance to inhibitors and other drugs. Therefore, there is a critical need for researchers to discover novel strategies to overcome drug resistance in PDAC cells.

One potential strategy is to focus on a key gene known for its involvement in many cell processes, including drug resistance and metabolism: TP53. The TP53 gene is often mutated or deleted in cancer cells, which can lead to drug resistance and cancer metastasis. In PDACS, this tumor suppressor gene has been shown to be mutated in 50–75% of patients.

“Many genes have been implicated in PDAC including KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4 and PDGFβR [3, 8, 9, 1822].”

In a new study, researchers—from Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Università di Bologna, University of Parma, and University of Wroclaw—further elucidated TP53’s role in drug resistance in PDAC cells. On April 27, 2022, their research paper was published in Aging (Aging-US) on the cover of Volume 14, Issue 8, and entitled, “Wild type and gain of function mutant TP53 can regulate the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, EGFR/Ras/Raf/MEK, and PI3K/mTORC1/GSK-3 pathway inhibitors, nutraceuticals and alter metabolic properties.”

The Study

In these in vitro studies, the researchers cultured two different PDAC cell lines. One cell line had a gain of function (GOF) TP53 mutation (MIA-PaCa-2) and the other had a loss of TP53 (PANC-28). Both PDAC cell lines also have activating mutations in the KRAS gene. Next, the team introduced either wild-type TP53 (WT-TP53) or a control vector into both PDAC cell lines. Effects from this experiment were analyzed using 26 clinically approved agents.

The chemotherapeutic drugs included: Docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), gemcitabine, Aclacinomycin, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin. The signal transduction inhibitors included: ARS-1620, PD0325901, LY294002, Pifithrin-μ, 6-bromoindirubin-30-oxime (BIO), SB415286, CHIR99021, Rapamycin, AG1498, Gilteritinib, Sorafenib, OTX008, Tiplaxtinin, Verapamil, and Vismodegib. The natural products included: Cyclopamine, Parthenolide2, Isoliquiritin2, Genistein2, and Daidzein2. The researchers also illustrated the effects of WT-TP53 and mutant TP53 on PDAC cell metabolism with metformin and rapamycin.

“An overview of the effects of WT and mutant TP53 on metabolic properties, together with the effects of metformin and rapamycin, and drugs used to inhibit pancreatic cancer growth, is presented in Figure 16.”

Figure 16. Influences of mutant and WT-TP53 on mitochondrial activity and glucose metabolism and effects of rapamycin and metformin. The effects of WT and mutant TP53 on key enzymes important in glycolysis and how they can influence metabolism and PDAC tumor growth. In our studies, we have examined the effect of GOF mutant TP53 and in some cases WT TP53. In addition, sites of interaction of the type 2 diabetes drug metformin and the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin and their effects on AMPK and mTORC1 are indicated. TP53 can induce mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by regulating the expression of PUMA and other proteins.

The Results

The researchers found that, in the presence of chemotherapeutic drugs, PDAC clonogenicity was decreased by the restoration of WT-TP53. Overall, the restoration of WT-TP53 in PDAC cells increased sensitivity/decreased resistance to various chemotherapeutic drugs, inhibitors and natural products. WT-TP53 also influenced  PDAC cell metabolic properties, including their metabolism. The authors also noted that the activity of mTORC1 (target of rapamycin), which is important in cellular growth and metabolism, can be affected by mutant TP53. They found that GOF mutated TP53 may render PDAC cells more resistant to rapamycin.

“Rapamycin and metformin can interfere with some of the important pathways in the mitochondria, some of which are regulated by TP53 [9698].”


Overall, these results suggest that WT-TP53 can play a key role in PDAC cell sensitivity to multiple drugs used to treat pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of TP53 on drug resistance and metabolism in PDAC cells, as well as its clinical implications.

“Regardless of which of the above processes contributes more to the reduction of mitochondrial metabolism in comparison with the same cells that only express GOF TP53, together the observed changes suggest restoration of WT-TP3 activity confers increased sensitization to various drugs and therapeutic molecules, natural products as well as nutraceuticals.”

Click here to read the full research paper published by Aging (Aging-US).

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Aging (Aging-US) is an open-access journal that publishes research papers bi-monthly in all fields of aging research. These papers are available at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals have the power to benefit humanity from the inside out by rapidly disseminating information that may be freely shared with researchers, colleagues, family, and friends around the world.

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Trending With Impact: Radiation, Senescence and Senotherapeutics

Researchers examined the effects of thoracic radiation-induced senescent cells on tumor progression, and the role of senotherapeutics to mitigate these effects.

Radiation therapy, advanced medical linear accelerator in therapeutic oncology to treat cancer
Radiation therapy, advanced medical linear accelerator in therapeutic oncology to treat cancer

The Trending With Impact series highlights Aging (Aging-US) publications that attract higher visibility among readers around the world online, in the news, and on social media—beyond normal readership levels. Look for future science news about the latest trending publications here, and at Aging-US.com.

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Radiation therapy is a highly-efficacious inducer of cancer cell death. With this being said, radiation has also previously been shown to cause premature senescence in the lung parenchyma. Senescence in cancer cells was previously only thought of as a mechanism capable of suppressing tumor cell proliferation by halting the cell cycle. However, a growing body of evidence shows that senescent cells may play a pro-tumorigenic role in cancer.

In the tumor microenvironment, the accumulation of senescent cells can become tumorigenic due to a lack of normal tissue stem cells and due to the expression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). SASP expression is when senescent cells secrete high levels of inflammatory cytokines, immune modulators, growth factors, and proteases. In addition to reinforcing senescence, SASP can create a biological environment that is immuno-suppressed and tumor-permissive. Radiation-induced senescence has previously been shown to have negative impacts on cancer patients.

“Cells that have undergone premature senescence due to stress, such as irradiation, are resistant to apoptotic cell death and effectively escape immune surveillance, resulting in their accumulation in tissue over time.”

Recently, researchers from the National Cancer Institute investigated the irradiated lung and the impact of radiation-induced senescent parenchymal cells on tumor growth. They also explored three senotherapeutics, rapamycin, INK-128 and ABT-737, for their potential to mitigate radiation-induced senescence. On February 12, 2022, the team’s priority research paper was published on the cover of Aging (Aging-US) Volume 14, Issue 3, and entitled, “Senescence-associated tumor growth is promoted by 12-Lipoxygenase.”

The Study

In this study, researchers intravenously injected melanoma cells into murine models two, four and eight weeks after daily fractions of thoracic irradiation exposure. There was also a control arm of unirradiated murine models. Tumor development was monitored by the number and size of the nodules in lung tissues. The number of cells exhibiting senescent activity was also recorded after two, four and eight weeks of thoracic irradiation. Their data demonstrated a correlation between the time points when tumors developed in the irradiated lungs and a marked accumulation of senescent cells.

“As previously described, in irradiated lungs, senescent cells increased significantly 4 and 8 weeks after IR compared to age matched unirradiated controls (Figure 1A).”

A characteristic of oncogene- and stress-induced senescence is the activation of mTOR signaling. Given this connection, the researchers conducted parallel studies evaluating senostatic agents capable of targeting the mTOR pathway, rapamycin and INK-128, and a senolytic agent to selectively eliminate senescent cells, ABT-737.  The data showed that rapamycin and INK-128 significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lungs of irradiated mice compared to the controls. ABT-737 demonstrated reduced pulmonary senescence in irradiated mice.

The researchers also studied 12-Lipoxygensae (12-LOX), an enzyme that metabolizes a certain SASP molecule previously implicated in pulmonary senescence: 12(S)-HETE. 12-LOX is a known contributor to radiation-induced senescence and lung injury. The team specifically focused on the role of 12-LOX in pulmonary senescence and its impact on radiation-enhanced tumor growth. They found that inhibiting 12-LOX activity reduced radiation-induced lung senescence and mitigated radiation-enhanced tumor growth.

“Finally, we link senescence associated 12-LOX activity and production of 12(S)-HETE to the observed enhanced tumor growth after irradiation.”


In sum, the researchers found that radiation therapy can induce senescence in the lung parenchyma and also enhance tumor growth. The contribution of senescence in tumor progression was emphasized by the protection delivered by the mTOR-targeted senostatic and senolytic agents. This important discovery could lead to new therapies for cancer patients who are undergoing radiation therapy.

“Together, this study demonstrates the critical role of senescence in mediating radiation-enhanced tumor growth and identifies Alox12 as an important player in this phenomenon. Treatment with a senostatic agent, INK-128, identified in this study, or with agents like rapamycin and ABT-737 suggested their potential therapeutic use in alleviating radiation associated tumor growth.”

Click here to read the full priority research paper published by Aging (Aging-US).

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Aging (Aging-US) is an open-access journal that publishes research papers bi-monthly in all fields of aging research. These papers are available to read at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals offer information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out and may be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

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Trending With Impact: ARDD21 Meeting Report Highlights

Read a brief summary of a meeting report from the 8th Annual Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD21) meeting. 


The Trending With Impact series highlights Aging (Aging-US) publications that attract higher visibility among readers around the world online, in the news, and on social media—beyond normal readership levels. Look for future science news about the latest trending publications here, and at Aging-US.com.

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The 8th Annual Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD21) meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, from August 30 to September 3, 2021. This meeting was attended by over 130 people on-site, with an additional 1800 people engaged online. The focus of this meeting was the current landscape of aging research and various ways it can be applied to drug discovery. Topics included: age-dependent control of cellular maintenance processes, longevity pathways, artificial intelligence-based drug screening, cellular stress and aging, the benefits of dietary restriction, stem cell rejuvenation, senolytics as an aging therapeutic, diverse models of aging, aging clocks and biomarkers of aging, new ideas in preclinical and clinical aging research, the longevity industry landscape, and a Longevity Medicine Workshop.

In total, there were 75 presentations given at ARDD21 by prominent and dedicated aging researchers. The meeting was thoroughly summarized in a paper published in Aging (Aging-US) Volume 14, Issue 2, entitled, “Meeting Report: Aging Research and Drug Discovery.”

ARDD21 Meeting Report Highlights

One of the keynote presentations was given by Nir Barzilai from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He discussed his work on aging and how it can be applied to drug discovery. One interesting finding that he discussed was that many drugs currently used to treat chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease, also have the potential to treat aging. This is due to the fact that many diseases are symptoms of aging, and thus, treating the underlying cause (aging) can in turn treat the symptoms.

Another keynote presentation was given by James Kirkland from the Mayo Clinic. He discussed his work on developing therapies to target senescent cells. Senescent cells can accumulate with age, and their presence has been linked with a variety of age-related conditions such as arthritis, cancer and heart disease. Kirkland’s team has developed a number of potential therapies to eliminate or reduce the number of senescent cells in the body, and he is currently testing them in clinical trials.

Professor Dame Linda Partridge from Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing presented on aging and the importance of intestinal homeostasis. Her studies involved rapamycin treatment to act on the longevity pathway mTOR, which revealed that short term and early treatment with rapamycin extends lifespan in D. melanogaster as much as chronic rapamycin treatment. Yu-Xuan Lu, another researcher from the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, demonstrated the existence of an unconventional intestine sex-specific TORC1-histone axis which uncovers a new aspect of improved longevity with rapamycin.

Brian Kennedy from the Buck Institute for Research on AgingNational University of Singapore and National University Health System showed how Alzheimer’s disease can be used as a model of neuronal aging. Presenting their new WormBot, Matt Kaeberlein from the University of Washington described a “set it and forget it” method of large-scale intervention testing in roundworms (C. elegans). 

“He stressed the importance of broad and unbiased screening of intervention beyond known pathways and in different combinations [56].”

Aging (Aging-US) Editorial Board member Alexey Moskalev from the Russian Academy of Sciences presented on the disruption of hydrogen sulfide homeostasis and its association with aging, and therefore, its potential as a gero-therapeutic target. David Sinclair from Harvard Medical School (also on the Aging Editorial Board) discussed aging-driven epigenetic and gene expression changes in the central nervous system. He showed that this can be safely reversed to restore vision by inducible adeno-associated viruses expressing polycistronic Oct4, Sox2 and Kif4, and that the effect is dependent on DNA demethylation. Finally, a Longevity Medicine Workshop was held with a panel of experts aimed to inspire young students to engage in longevity research. This panel included Aging Editorial Board members Alex Zhavoronkov, Alexey Moskalev and Mikhail Blagosklonny (Editor-In-Chief).


Overall, the ARDD21 meeting was a fruitful exhibition of experts from all areas of aging research that came together to share their latest findings in the field. The highlights in this blog pale in comparison to the thoughtful details included in the original meeting report. 

Click here to read the full meeting report published by Aging (Aging-US).

AGING (AGING-US) VIDEOS: YouTube | LabTube | Aging-US.com

Aging (Aging-US) is an open-access journal that publishes research papers bi-monthly in all fields of aging research. These papers are available to read at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals offer information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out and may be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

For media inquiries, please contact media@impactjournals.com.

Behind the Study: Second Interventions in Aging Conference

Following the Second Interventions in Aging Conference, meeting organizers Dr. Brian Kennedy and Dr. Linda Partridge discuss their overview of the meeting proceedings that was published by Aging in 2017, entitled, “2nd interventions in aging conference.”

Researchers explain their studies that were published in Aging
Researchers explain their studies that were published in Aging

Behind the Study is a series of transcribed videos from researchers elaborating on their recent oncology-focused studies published by Aging. Visit the Aging YouTube channel for more insights from outstanding authors.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

I’m Brian Kennedy, I’m a professor at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging and a visiting professor at National University of Singapore.

Dr. Linda Partridge

And I’m Linda Partridge and I’m Director at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Aging in Cologne, Germany. And also Director of the Institute for Healthy Aging at University College London.

So, Brian, how did you get into aging research?

Dr. Brian Kennedy

The funny thing was when I went to graduate school, I’d worked in yeast as an undergraduate, and I decided that I was not going to work in yeast anymore. But the more I realized about how difficult it was to work in mice, the more I wanted to work in yeast. And so there was another graduate student and I that wanted to go to Lenny Guarente‘s lab, and we decided to work in yeast and we wanted to figure out something completely crazy to do.

And we came up with two ideas: One was yeast apoptosis, which was a little weird for a single-celled organism and the other was aging. And we decided that aging was the least-

Dr. Linda Partridge

Mr. Nobel Prize.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

It’s true. We decided that aging was the least implausible of the two. And so we did that, but there’s a whole field on yeast apoptosis now too, so I guess we would have been okay. How about you?

Dr. Linda Partridge

Well, I got into it crabwise, really, because I started out life as an evolutionary biologist. So from the evolution point of view, it’s a completely weird trait because development produces a wonderfully functioning young organism and then it all goes to hell. You’d think it would be a lot easier to maintain it and to produce it in the first place. So I became very interested in how aging evolves and it is indeed really peculiar it’s almost certainly given what we’ve learned recently about the mechanisms of aging, actually bad effects in old age of genes that are good in the young. So I think that’s pretty interesting if you think about it as genes driving the old organism too hard to do the kinds of things that young organisms can do very well. I think it makes quite an easier process to think about, put it that way.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

And what we started the puzzle, both of us have worked on this a lot is, you know we’ve been trying to show that the pathways that are modulating aging are conserved. And it’s always kind of a puzzle that there’s so much conservation if this is a trait that evolution never really cared about that much. So it’s… I’ve never quite got that satisfied in my mind. What do you think about that?

Dr. Linda Partridge

I guess what I think is that the processes that you and other people have come up with, there are ones that do drive good things in young organisms. So the things that make for growth, for reproduction, for strong immune responses, for effective muscles and movement, all the things that young organisms have to do. But they seem to be set at too higher level when you get old, and I think that way it is actually quite easy to understand why it’s evolutionarily conserved because presumably the kinds of genes that control growth and reproduction evolve very early on.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

I agree. I actually argue with people that aging is going to be easier to modify than disease. So I think it’s going to be easier to keep people healthy than it is to wait until they get sick and try to treat them and make them better. I think of it as very simplistically as a state of homeostasis versus disequilibrium, you know, while you’re still relatively healthy, it’s fairly easy to tap into these pathways … relatively easy to tap into these pathways … and try to maintain that. But once you get into a state of disequilibrium, which I would call chronic disease of one sort or another, then you’ve got a problem. You’re kind of fighting entropy at that point and trying to put things back together again is very difficult.

Dr. Linda Partridge

Yes, it’s very interesting talking to colleagues in other areas about that idea because one gets a kind of ‘yuck’ response. So does that mean that humans are going to have to take pills when they’re healthy to prevent disease? You can point out that people do that already around statin and aspirin and things that lower high blood pressure. None of these are dealing with disease states, they’re in anticipation of possible disease states and trying to prevent them. So there’s plenty of taking pills to prevent things already, but for some reason, when you talk about it as a likely outcome of research into aging, there’s quite often a kickback, even from other scientists.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

I think most of the things we take, you know that are really working effectively really are aging drugs as much as they’re disease drugs. So you mentioned aspirin, but not just that I mean, look at statins, look at beta- blockers, look at early diabetes drugs like Metformin. All of them are targeting early risk factors for chronic disease, and I kind of feel like these risk factors are right at the interface between aging and disease itself.

Dr. Linda Partridge

They’re right on the nexus of the way in which aging acts as a risk factor for disease, and I think the other thing about them is that it’s quite clear that they’re turning out to have off-licence effects. Most of these drugs have a much broader therapeutic range than they’re generally used for. Which is exactly what you’d expect if they’re in there in that nexus between aging and disease.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

So what’s exciting to you now in your research? Where are you going in the next five years?

Dr. Linda Partridge

Well, funnily enough, I’m very much into drugs. So we’ve been doing quite a lot of drug work with drosophila and based exactly on this idea that mechanisms of aging are conserved. We’re starting to take a number of these drugs into mice, but also starting to do some big database stuff with humans, looking at particular pathways that have come up in the model organisms and asking whether SNPs associated with those pathways in humans ones that are either likely to increase the activity of the pathways concerned or decrease it or associated with particular types of disease risk.

So one can do this process called Mendelian randomization, which in theory gets rid of a lot of the effects of genetic background and focuses on a particular SNP. Now I think there’s enough data coming in on humans that we can really start to do the population genetics on these pathways, and I’m terribly excited by that.

What about you?

Dr. Brian Kennedy

Well, I have two goals right now. One is to try to go back to the simple organisms and really take a systems approach and try to take a yeast cell for example, and be able to describe all the features of aging, not just one gene at a time. And so we’re working a lot in sort of systems biology approaches there, but I think the main goal I have is-

Dr. Linda Partridge

Do you mean you’re looking at gene combinations or how are you doing it?

Dr. Brian Kennedy

Yes. Gene combinations, but also working with collaborators to look at how signaling pathways change with age to start to really understand longitudinal processes in a yeast cell. So the idea is to combine that with the genetic data and try to put the puzzle together.

Dr. Linda Partridge

I think that’s interesting.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

My main goal really is to get human and to start testing interventions in humans because I think we have enough knowledge now that we have things that are likely to work and we have reasonable candidate biomarkers, none of which are completely validated, but I feel good about some of them. And if you put that together, I kind of see it as a lock and key fit. You know we’ve got a bunch of interventions which are potential keys, and we’ve got a bunch of biomarkers which are potential locks, and we have to figure out which keys fit in which locks. So I’m looking at strategies to really test that in humans, either through academic research or through private companies.

Dr. Linda Partridge

So do you think companies are going to be interested in doing the kind of research that would target more than one disease, or do you think the way in is going to be to go for particular disease states? How do you think we should do it, operationally?

Dr. Brian Kennedy

I’d much rather target healthy aging or health span or prevention of multiple diseases. And I think there are companies that are thinking about that now, but they’re still relatively small generally. I think PhRMA kind of walks up to that ledge and looks over and then backs up. But eventually I think that it’s going to happen. I think what we need is some evidence that we can really modulates aging pathways. And that’s where this biomarker strategy or the kinds of things that [inaudible] is doing to get multiple disease parameters simultaneously in clinical trials. Those kinds of things, I think, are you just need a couple of success stories and then people start to get it. So I’m agnostic as to whether it’s done academically or privately, I just want to make it happen and so you know.

Dr. Linda Partridge

So what do you think about… We know so much from the animal studies about rapamycin now we probably know more about that than any other drug in the context of aging. Do you think there are going to be more clinical trials with rapamycin for off-license applications? Do you think it would be a trial for Alzheimer’s for instance?

Dr. Brian Kennedy

You know, there’ve been a lot of talk about trials for Alzheimer’s and I don’t think one has gotten started yet. But I think you’re going to start to see more and more of this. Then of course, there’s a lot of research to try to figure out how to either dose rapamycin or everolimus, which is the first generation of that rapalog in a way that doesn’t have the toxicity or to develop new drugs that have the efficacy without the toxicity. So I think both of those approaches are moving forward.

Novartis just spun off a small company to try to do this, and so I think that there’s renewed interest in trying to inhibit mTOR, but there’s still a lot of open questions about how it’s going to be best to do that. But having said that the number of potential indications, I mean, not to mention aging itself is so large that there’s clearly value into doing this successfully. So I’m pretty excited about where that’s going to go. I think that’s only one of a bunch of pathways though and you’re looking for new drugs and new pathways, and I think we’re going to find that there are a lot of different potential entry points for intervention in aging as we go forward.

Dr. Linda Partridge

I think it’s a time of great excitement. I just hope that some of the human trials get done while I’m still active. I’d love to see some successes with people.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

But you will be active for at least 20 more years, so …

Dr. Linda Partridge

Lots longer if somebody comes up with a pill.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

You know, that’s why I think doing this Fusion Conference has been so fun. You know, we’ve done two of these now in Cancun, and the idea is to bring different groups of people to look at different strategies for interventions in aging. I think that the conferences are relatively small, but we try to recruit a wide range of people. So we get people discussing different kinds of ideas that don’t normally talk. That’s what I think the strength of it is what do you think?

Dr. Linda Partridge

I agree with that. I really like the format of those conferences because they have a low upper limit on the number of delegates deliberately. So that most people can give talks or posters and there’s plenty of time for discussion. And what I noticed at those meetings correspondingly is that the discussion is very intense. Almost everybody talks to everybody else at some point during the meeting. So there’s real interchange of ideas as you say, between people who we deliberately invite from different areas, and I think it’s been a great success and it’s also been very nice to see it going more and more translational. There is more and more interest in mechanisms that are going to give rise to preventative measures rather than just the basic research, which has been fantastic and was necessary to get anywhere. But people really are trying to push it into helping people now. And I find that very exciting. So yes, I think meetings are great.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

Yes, I know, and I think as we go forward with these meetings, we’ll probably continue to try to emphasize these human intervention studies as much as possible.

Dr. Linda Partridge

I think that’s very much a specialty of that meeting.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

Because there are other meetings that really focus on the basic biology of aging, but this is really trying to get at the next step.

Dr. Linda Partridge

Yeah. Yeah. It’s particularly good when we can get basic scientists and clinicians together, I think. And also people from the various companies who might do something about the discoveries. I think it’s a very good mix of people that way.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

I can’t, you know, in my better moments, I think that we’re almost right at a tipping point where we’re going to push over this wall and then all of a sudden everybody’s going to be saying, oh, targeting aging is common sense in 10 years. I still have the bad moments where I feel like the little soldier walking into the wall and never go anywhere too.

Dr. Linda Partridge

Yes. I fluctuate between those two points as well, but I find myself feeling optimistic more and more often seeing what’s happening.

Dr. Brian Kennedy

That’s good. Well, it’ll be exciting to see where the field goes moving forward…

Dr. Linda Partridge

Yeah, indeed. Indeed.

Click here to read the full meeting report, published by Aging.


Aging is an open-access journal that publishes research papers monthly in all fields of aging research and other topics. These papers are available to read at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals offer information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out and may be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

For media inquiries, please contact media@impactjournals.com.

Behind the Study: COVID-19 and Chronological Aging

Dr. Michael P. Lisanti from The University of Salford describes his 2020 paper published by Aging, entitled, “COVID-19 and chronological aging: senolytics and other anti-aging drugs for the treatment or prevention of corona virus infection?

Researchers explain their studies that were published in Aging

Behind the Study is a series of transcribed videos from researchers elaborating on their recent oncology-focused studies published by Aging. A new Behind the Study is released each Monday. Visit the Aging YouTube channel for more insights from outstanding authors.

Hi, I’m professor Michael Lisanti and I’m the Chair of Translational Medicine at the University of Salford, and today I want to talk about our new prospective article, which links COVID-19 and chronological aging, and is focused on potential treatments and prevention strategies. I got interested in this topic because there seems to be an association between COVID-19 fatalities and aging, especially in patients with advanced chronological age. Patients over 65, and their 70s and 80s, are more likely to have increased morbidity and mortality. And so, I thought there may be a link there, between aging and senescence and the viral replication, as well as the potential therapy.

What I’d like to highlight about this particular article is that it proposes potential treatment strategies as well as prevention strategies. The reason is because it appears that this disease, the virus itself, may target senescent cells and senescent cells have been rewired to increase protein synthesis and also to increase the secretion of inflammatory mediators, which is known as the SASP, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype.

And so, one idea would be to use drugs that are senolytics. Senolytics are drugs that target and lyse senescent cells, but also to use protein synthesis inhibitors. The reason is because proteins synthesis inhibitors and senolytic drugs would prevent viral replication, which would reduce viral transmission. And so this could be used as a preventative strategy. I’ll just give you a couple of examples. If you have a drug which is an FDA-approved protein synthesis inhibitor, it should inhibit the secretion of inflammatory mediators, like IL-6. It should inhibit the fibrosis by preventing the secretion and production of collagen. And most importantly, the virus is also made of protein, so if you have a protein synthesis inhibitor, it will also inhibit viral replication.

Figure 1. What is the relationship between COVID-19 and advanced chronological age?
Figure 1. What is the relationship between COVID-19 and advanced chronological age?

There are three drugs I’d like to mention in particular. One is azithromycin, which is a senolytic. The others are also protein synthesis inhibitors, like doxycycline and rapamycin. All three have been shown to reduce IL-6 production because of their inhibition of protein synthesis activity. And also, all three of them have been shown to inhibit viral replication, not specifically of COVID 19, but since this effect on protein synthesis is a generalized effect, it should work for any virus. For example, azithromycin has been shown to inhibit the replication of Zika virus and Ebola virus, doxycycline has been shown to inhibit the replication of dengue virus, and rapamycin, which is another protein synthesis inhibitor with anti-aging properties, has been shown to inhibit replication of the HIV virus.

So, it seems to me that it’s a no-brainer that we should be repurposing FDA-approved drugs that are protein synthesis inhibitors, both for prevention, to prevent the inflammation fibrosis that’s occurring that’s killing people with COVID-19, and also to prevent the contagion by inhibiting viral replication. So I think this could provide a very inexpensive way forward because drugs like doxycyclin are only less than 10 cents a day, and could be used, as I said, for both prophylaxis and treatment. But, I think we need to use it early in the disease to prevent the fibrosis and inflammation, which makes them long, very inflexible and unable to expand and contract, and leads them to a fibrotic lung disease, which prevents patient recovery and could explain lethality of the disease.

I would like to directly engage with people to pick this up, to bring this forward as potential clinical trials. These clinical trials could be done directly in healthcare workers because they are the most vulnerable. In addition, they could be done in patients with advanced chronological age, or even with patients that are asymptomatic, that have been identified as the virus-positive. And it would be like a window trial where you would do viral titers first, and then you would give the drug and then you could also look at the viral titers after administering the drugs. So this would be a very easy, straightforward trial.

All the diagnostic tools for COVID-19 have already been identified and perfected, so all we need to do is interject FDA-approved drugs, which are protein synthesis inhibitors, to look at the eradication, the virus. So this would also be a very inexpensive clinical trial. But I would like to engage with infectious disease experts and virologists to help facilitate. Thank you.

Of course, I would like to thank two foundations which have supported our work: The Fox Point Foundation in Canada and The Healthy Life Foundation in the UK for providing the equipment and infrastructure at the University of Salford.

Click here to read the full paper, published by Aging.


Aging is an open-access journal that publishes research papers monthly in all fields of aging research and other topics. These papers are available to read at no cost to readers on Aging-us.com. Open-access journals offer information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out and may be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

For media inquiries, please contact media@impactjournals.com.

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